Thinking in arrays#

Originally presented as part of HSF-India training on December 18, 2023.




So far, all the arrays we’ve dealt with have been rectangular (in $n$ dimensions; “rectilinear”).

What if we had data like this?

[
  [[1.84, 0.324]],
  [[-1.609, -0.713, 0.005], [0.953, -0.993, 0.011, 0.718]],
  [[0.459, -1.517, 1.545], [0.33, 0.292]],
  [[-0.376, -1.46, -0.206], [0.65, 1.278]],
  [[], [], [1.617]],
  []
]
[
  [[-0.106, 0.611]],
  [[0.118, -1.788, 0.794, 0.658], [-0.105]]
]
[
  [[-0.384], [0.697, -0.856]],
  [[0.778, 0.023, -1.455, -2.289], [-0.67], [1.153, -1.669, 0.305, 1.517, -0.292]]
]
[
  [[0.205, -0.355], [-0.265], [1.042]],
  [[-0.004], [-1.167, -0.054, 0.726, 0.213]],
  [[1.741, -0.199, 0.827]]
]

What if we had data like this?

[
  {"fill": "#b1b1b1", "stroke": "none", "points": [{"x": 5.27453, "y": 1.03276},
    {"x": -3.51280, "y": 1.74849}]},
  {"fill": "#b1b1b1", "stroke": "none", "points": [{"x": 8.21630, "y": 4.07844},
    {"x": -0.79157, "y": 3.49478}, {"x": 16.38932, "y": 5.29399},
    {"x": 10.38641, "y": 0.10832}, {"x": -2.07070, "y": 14.07140},
    {"x": 9.57021, "y": -0.94823}, {"x": 1.97332, "y": 3.62380},
    {"x": 5.66760, "y": 11.38001}, {"x": 0.25497, "y": 3.39276},
    {"x": 3.86585, "y": 6.22051}, {"x": -0.67393, "y": 2.20572}]},
  {"fill": "#d0d0ff", "stroke": "none", "points": [{"x": 3.59528, "y": 7.37191},
    {"x": 0.59192, "y": 2.91503}, {"x": 4.02932, "y": -1.13601},
    {"x": -1.01593, "y": 1.95894}, {"x": 1.03666, "y": 0.05251}]},
  {"fill": "#d0d0ff", "stroke": "none", "points": [{"x": -8.78510, "y": -0.00497},
    {"x": -15.22688, "y": 3.90244}, {"x": 5.74593, "y": 4.12718}]},
  {"fill": "none", "stroke": "#000000", "points": [{"x": 4.40625, "y": -6.953125},
    {"x": 4.34375, "y": -7.09375}, {"x": 4.3125, "y": -7.140625},
    {"x": 4.140625, "y": -7.140625}]},
  {"fill": "none", "stroke": "#808080", "points": [{"x": 0.46875, "y": -0.09375},
    {"x": 0.46875, "y": -0.078125}, {"x": 0.46875, "y": 0.53125}]}
]

What if we had data like this?

[
  {"movie": "Evil Dead", "year": 1981, "actors":
    ["Bruce Campbell", "Ellen Sandweiss", "Richard DeManincor", "Betsy Baker"]
  },
  {"movie": "Darkman", "year": 1900, "actors":
    ["Liam Neeson", "Frances McDormand", "Larry Drake", "Bruce Campbell"]
  },
  {"movie": "Army of Darkness", "year": 1992, "actors":
    ["Bruce Campbell", "Embeth Davidtz", "Marcus Gilbert", "Bridget Fonda",
     "Ted Raimi", "Patricia Tallman"]
  },
  {"movie": "A Simple Plan", "year": 1998, "actors":
    ["Bill Paxton", "Billy Bob Thornton", "Bridget Fonda", "Brent Briscoe"]
  },
  {"movie": "Spider-Man 2", "year": 2004, "actors":
    ["Tobey Maguire", "Kristen Dunst", "Alfred Molina", "James Franco",
     "Rosemary Harris", "J.K. Simmons", "Stan Lee", "Bruce Campbell"]
  },
  {"movie": "Drag Me to Hell", "year": 2009, "actors":
    ["Alison Lohman", "Justin Long", "Lorna Raver", "Dileep Rao", "David Paymer"]
  }
]

What if we had data like this?

[
  {"run": 1, "luminosityBlock": 156, "event": 46501,
   "PV": {"x": 0.243, "y": 0.393, "z": 1.451},
   "electron": [],
   "muon": [
     {"pt": 63.043, "eta": -0.718, "phi": 2.968, "mass": 0.105, "charge": 1},
     {"pt": 38.120, "eta": -0.879, "phi": -1.032, "mass": 0.105, "charge": -1},
     {"pt": 4.048, "eta": -0.320, "phi": 1.038, "mass": 0.105, "charge": 1}
   ],
   "MET": {"pt": 21.929, "phi": -2.730}
  },
  {"run": 1, "luminosityBlock": 156, "event": 46502,
   "PV": {"x": 0.244, "y": 0.395, "z": -2.879},
   "electron": [
     {"pt": 21.902, "eta": -0.702, "phi": 0.133, "mass": 0.005, "charge": 1},
     {"pt": 42.632, "eta": -0.979, "phi": -1.863, "mass": 0.008, "charge": 1},
     {"pt": 78.012, "eta": -0.933, "phi": -2.207, "mass": 0.018, "charge": -1},
     {"pt": 23.835, "eta": -1.362, "phi": -0.621, "mass": 0.008, "charge": -1}
   ],
   "muon": [],
   "MET": {"pt": 16.972, "phi": 2.866}},
  ...
]

It might be possible to turn these datasets into tabular form using surrogate keys and database normalization, but

  • they could be inconvenient or less efficient in that form, depending on what we want to do,

  • they were very likely given in a ragged/untidy form. You can’t ignore the data-cleaning step!


Dealing with these datasets as JSON or Python objects is inefficient for the same reason as for lists of numbers.


We want arbitrary data structure with array-oriented interface and performance…

Libraries for irregular arrays#


import pyarrow as pa

arrow_array = pa.array([
    [{"x": 1.1, "y": [1]}, {"x": 2.2, "y": [1, 2]}, {"x": 3.3, "y": [1, 2, 3]}],
    [],
    [{"x": 4.4, "y": [1, 2, 3, 4]}, {"x": 5.5, "y": [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]}]
])

arrow_array.type
ListType(list<item: struct<x: double, y: list<item: int64>>>)

arrow_array
<pyarrow.lib.ListArray object at 0x7fbac327a6e0>
[
  -- is_valid: all not null
  -- child 0 type: double
    [
      1.1,
      2.2,
      3.3
    ]
  -- child 1 type: list<item: int64>
    [
      [
        1
      ],
      [
        1,
        2
      ],
      [
        1,
        2,
        3
      ]
    ],
  -- is_valid: all not null
  -- child 0 type: double
    []
  -- child 1 type: list<item: int64>
    [],
  -- is_valid: all not null
  -- child 0 type: double
    [
      4.4,
      5.5
    ]
  -- child 1 type: list<item: int64>
    [
      [
        1,
        2,
        3,
        4
      ],
      [
        1,
        2,
        3,
        4,
        5
      ]
    ]
]

import awkward as ak

awkward_array = ak.from_arrow(arrow_array)
awkward_array
[[{x: 1.1, y: [1]}, {x: 2.2, y: [...]}, {x: 3.3, y: [1, 2, 3]}],
 [],
 [{x: 4.4, y: [1, 2, 3, 4]}, {x: 5.5, y: [1, ..., 5]}]]
----------------------------------------------------------------
type: 3 * var * ?{
    x: ?float64,
    y: option[var * ?int64]
}

ak.to_parquet(awkward_array, "/tmp/file.parquet")
<pyarrow._parquet.FileMetaData object at 0x7fbae85c69d0>
  created_by: parquet-cpp-arrow version 16.0.0
  num_columns: 2
  num_rows: 3
  num_row_groups: 1
  format_version: 2.6
  serialized_size: 0

ak.from_parquet("/tmp/file.parquet")
[[{x: 1.1, y: [1]}, {x: 2.2, y: [...]}, {x: 3.3, y: [1, 2, 3]}],
 [],
 [{x: 4.4, y: [1, 2, 3, 4]}, {x: 5.5, y: [1, ..., 5]}]]
----------------------------------------------------------------
type: 3 * var * ?{
    x: ?float64,
    y: option[var * ?int64]
}

Awkward Array#

ragged = ak.Array([
    [
      [[1.84, 0.324]],
      [[-1.609, -0.713, 0.005], [0.953, -0.993, 0.011, 0.718]],
      [[0.459, -1.517, 1.545], [0.33, 0.292]],
      [[-0.376, -1.46, -0.206], [0.65, 1.278]],
      [[], [], [1.617]],
      []
    ],
    [
      [[-0.106, 0.611]],
      [[0.118, -1.788, 0.794, 0.658], [-0.105]]
    ],
    [
      [[-0.384], [0.697, -0.856]],
      [[0.778, 0.023, -1.455, -2.289], [-0.67], [1.153, -1.669, 0.305, 1.517, -0.292]]
    ],
    [
      [[0.205, -0.355], [-0.265], [1.042]],
      [[-0.004], [-1.167, -0.054, 0.726, 0.213]],
      [[1.741, -0.199, 0.827]]
    ]
])

Multidimensional indexing

ragged[3, 1, -1, 2]
0.726

Basic slicing

ragged[3, 1:, -1, 1:3]
[[-0.054, 0.726],
 [-0.199, 0.827]]
-----------------------
type: 2 * var * float64

Advanced slicing

ragged[[False, False, True, True], [0, -1, 0, -1], 0, -1]
[-0.384,
 0.827]
-----------------
type: 2 * float64

Awkward slicing

ragged > 0
[[[[True, True]], [[False, False, True], [True, ..., True]], ..., [...], []],
 [[[False, True]], [[True, False, True, True], [False]]],
 [[[False], [True, False]], [[True, True, False, False], ..., [...]]],
 [[[True, False], [False], [True]], [[False], ...], [[True, False, True]]]]
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
type: 4 * var * var * var * bool

ragged[ragged > 0]
[[[[1.84, 0.324]], [[0.005], [0.953, 0.011, 0.718]], [...], ..., [[], ...], []],
 [[[0.611]], [[0.118, 0.794, 0.658], []]],
 [[[], [0.697]], [[0.778, 0.023], [], [1.15, 0.305, 1.52]]],
 [[[0.205], [], [1.04]], [[], [0.726, 0.213]], [[1.74, 0.827]]]]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
type: 4 * var * var * var * float64

Reductions

ak.sum(ragged)
2.8980000000000006

ak.sum(ragged, axis=-1)
[[[2.16], [-2.32, 0.689], [0.487, 0.622], [-2.04, ...], [0, 0, 1.62], []],
 [[0.505], [-0.218, -0.105]],
 [[-0.384, -0.159], [-2.94, -0.67, 1.01]],
 [[-0.15, -0.265, 1.04], [-0.004, -0.282], [2.37]]]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
type: 4 * var * var * float64

ak.sum(ragged, axis=0)
[[[1.56, 0.58], [0.432, -0.856], [1.04]],
 [[-0.717, -2.48, -0.656, -1.63], ..., [1.15, -1.67, 0.305, 1.52, -0.292]],
 [[2.2, -1.72, 2.37], [0.33, 0.292]],
 [[-0.376, -1.46, -0.206], [0.65, 1.28]],
 [[], [], [1.62]],
 []]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
type: 6 * var * var * float64

How do we even define reductions on an array with variable length lists?

How do we even define reductions on an array with variable length lists?

array = ak.Array([[   1,    2,    3,    4],
                  [  10, None,   30      ],
                  [ 100,  200            ]])

ak.sum(array, axis=0).tolist()
[111, 202, 33, 4]

ak.sum(array, axis=1).tolist()
[10, 40, 300]

(You almost always want the deepest/maximum axis, which you can get with axis=-1.)


Awkward Arrays in particle physics#

import uproot

file = uproot.open("https://github.com/jpivarski-talks/2023-12-18-hsf-india-tutorial-bhubaneswar/raw/main/data/SMHiggsToZZTo4L.root")
file
<ReadOnlyDirectory '/' at 0x7fbac3954a10>

tree = file["Events"]
tree
<TTree 'Events' (32 branches) at 0x7fbac0876f50>

tree.arrays(entry_stop=100)
[{run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46501, PV_npvs: 15, PV_x: 0.244, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46502, PV_npvs: 13, PV_x: 0.244, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46503, PV_npvs: 11, PV_x: 0.242, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46504, PV_npvs: 22, PV_x: 0.243, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46505, PV_npvs: 18, PV_x: 0.24, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46506, PV_npvs: 5, PV_x: 0.243, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46507, PV_npvs: 11, PV_x: 0.242, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46508, PV_npvs: 25, PV_x: 0.245, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46509, PV_npvs: 12, PV_x: 0.246, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46510, PV_npvs: 18, PV_x: 0.244, ...},
 ...,
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46592, PV_npvs: 26, PV_x: 0.243, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46593, PV_npvs: 12, PV_x: 0.243, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46594, PV_npvs: 8, PV_x: 0.246, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46595, PV_npvs: 17, PV_x: 0.243, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46596, PV_npvs: 17, PV_x: 0.245, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46597, PV_npvs: 14, PV_x: 0.243, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46598, PV_npvs: 22, PV_x: 0.243, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46599, PV_npvs: 13, PV_x: 0.245, ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46600, PV_npvs: 21, PV_x: 0.246, ...}]
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
type: 100 * {
    run: int32,
    luminosityBlock: uint32,
    event: uint64,
    PV_npvs: int32,
    PV_x: float32,
    PV_y: float32,
    PV_z: float32,
    nMuon: uint32,
    Muon_pt: var * float32,
    Muon_eta: var * float32,
    Muon_phi: var * float32,
    Muon_mass: var * float32,
    Muon_charge: var * int32,
    Muon_pfRelIso03_all: var * float32,
    Muon_pfRelIso04_all: var * float32,
    Muon_dxy: var * float32,
    Muon_dxyErr: var * float32,
    Muon_dz: var * float32,
    Muon_dzErr: var * float32,
    nElectron: uint32,
    Electron_pt: var * float32,
    Electron_eta: var * float32,
    Electron_phi: var * float32,
    Electron_mass: var * float32,
    Electron_charge: var * int32,
    Electron_pfRelIso03_all: var * float32,
    Electron_dxy: var * float32,
    Electron_dxyErr: var * float32,
    Electron_dz: var * float32,
    Electron_dzErr: var * float32,
    MET_pt: float32,
    MET_phi: float32
}

The same data fits into Parquet files (a little more easily).

events = ak.from_parquet("https://github.com/jpivarski-talks/2023-12-18-hsf-india-tutorial-bhubaneswar/raw/main/data/SMHiggsToZZTo4L.parquet")
events
[{run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46501, PV: {...}, electron: [], ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46502, PV: {...}, electron: [...], ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46503, PV: {...}, electron: [...], ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46504, PV: {...}, electron: ..., ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46505, PV: {...}, electron: [...], ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46506, PV: {...}, electron: ..., ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46507, PV: {...}, electron: ..., ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46508, PV: {...}, electron: ..., ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46509, PV: {...}, electron: [...], ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 156, event: 46510, PV: {...}, electron: [], ...},
 ...,
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 996, event: 298792, PV: {...}, electron: [...], ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 996, event: 298793, PV: {...}, electron: ..., ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 996, event: 298794, PV: {...}, electron: [], ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 996, event: 298795, PV: {...}, electron: [...], ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 996, event: 298796, PV: {...}, electron: [], ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 996, event: 298797, PV: {...}, electron: ..., ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 996, event: 298798, PV: {...}, electron: [], ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 996, event: 298799, PV: {...}, electron: [...], ...},
 {run: 1, luminosityBlock: 996, event: 298800, PV: {...}, electron: [...], ...}]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
type: 299973 * {
    run: int32,
    luminosityBlock: int64,
    event: uint64,
    PV: Vector3D[
        x: float32,
        y: float32,
        z: float32
    ],
    electron: var * Momentum4D[
        pt: float32,
        eta: float32,
        phi: float32,
        mass: float32,
        charge: int32,
        pfRelIso03_all: float32,
        dxy: float32,
        dxyErr: float32,
        dz: float32,
        dzErr: float32
    ],
    muon: var * Momentum4D[
        pt: float32,
        eta: float32,
        phi: float32,
        mass: float32,
        charge: int32,
        pfRelIso03_all: float32,
        pfRelIso04_all: float32,
        dxy: float32,
        dxyErr: float32,
        dz: float32,
        dzErr: float32
    ],
    MET: Momentum2D[
        pt: float32,
        phi: float32
    ]
}

View the first event as Python lists and dicts (like JSON).

events[0].to_list()
{'run': 1,
 'luminosityBlock': 156,
 'event': 46501,
 'PV': {'x': 0.24369880557060242,
  'y': 0.3936990201473236,
  'z': 1.451307773590088},
 'electron': [],
 'muon': [{'pt': 63.04386901855469,
   'eta': -0.7186822295188904,
   'phi': 2.968005895614624,
   'mass': 0.10565836727619171,
   'charge': 1,
   'pfRelIso03_all': 0.0,
   'pfRelIso04_all': 0.0,
   'dxy': -0.004785160068422556,
   'dxyErr': 0.0060764215886592865,
   'dz': 0.09005985409021378,
   'dzErr': 0.044572051614522934},
  {'pt': 38.12034606933594,
   'eta': -0.8794569969177246,
   'phi': -1.0324749946594238,
   'mass': 0.10565836727619171,
   'charge': -1,
   'pfRelIso03_all': 0.0,
   'pfRelIso04_all': 0.0,
   'dxy': 0.0005746808601543307,
   'dxyErr': 0.0013040687190368772,
   'dz': -0.0032290113158524036,
   'dzErr': 0.003023269586265087},
  {'pt': 4.04868745803833,
   'eta': -0.320764422416687,
   'phi': 1.0385035276412964,
   'mass': 0.10565836727619171,
   'charge': 1,
   'pfRelIso03_all': 0.0,
   'pfRelIso04_all': 0.17997965216636658,
   'dxy': -0.00232272082939744,
   'dxyErr': 0.004343290813267231,
   'dz': -0.005162843037396669,
   'dzErr': 0.004190043080598116}],
 'MET': {'pt': 21.929929733276367, 'phi': -2.7301223278045654}}

Get one numeric field (also known as “column”).

events.electron.pt
[[],
 [21.9, 42.6, 78, 23.8],
 [11.6, 6.69],
 [10.4],
 [30.7, 29.2, 6.38, 6.24],
 [16.1],
 [5.32],
 [6.99],
 [41, 6.5, 13.1, 52.1],
 [],
 ...,
 [19.1, 9.69],
 [30.2],
 [],
 [37, 7.36, 48],
 [],
 [12.3],
 [],
 [17.9, 23.2],
 [48.1, 38.7]]
----------------------------
type: 299973 * var * float32

Compute something ($p_z = p_T \sinh\eta$).

import numpy as np

events.electron.pt * np.sinh(events.electron.eta)
[[],
 [-16.7, -48.8, -83.9, -43.5],
 [-11.1, 26],
 [-0.237],
 [-19.9, 47.5, -18, -15.1],
 [5.58],
 [-3.22],
 [3.88],
 [-8.92, -10.5, -23.8, -17.3],
 [],
 ...,
 [26.4, 19.1],
 [92.2],
 [],
 [-193, -2.78, -43.4],
 [],
 [-3.4],
 [],
 [80.1, 99.3],
 [26.8, 74]]
------------------------------
type: 299973 * var * float32

Note that the Vector library works with Awkward Arrays, if it is imported this way:

import vector
vector.register_awkward()

Records with name="Momentum4D" and fields with coordinate names (px, py, pz, E or pt, phi, eta, m) automatically get Vector properties and methods.


events.electron.type.show()
299973 * var * Momentum4D[
    pt: float32,
    eta: float32,
    phi: float32,
    mass: float32,
    charge: int32,
    pfRelIso03_all: float32,
    dxy: float32,
    dxyErr: float32,
    dz: float32,
    dzErr: float32
]

# implicitly computes pz = pt * sinh(eta)
events.electron.pz
[[],
 [-16.7, -48.8, -83.9, -43.5],
 [-11.1, 26],
 [-0.237],
 [-19.9, 47.5, -18, -15.1],
 [5.58],
 [-3.22],
 [3.88],
 [-8.92, -10.5, -23.8, -17.3],
 [],
 ...,
 [26.4, 19.1],
 [92.2],
 [],
 [-193, -2.78, -43.4],
 [],
 [-3.4],
 [],
 [80.1, 99.3],
 [26.8, 74]]
------------------------------
type: 299973 * var * float32

To make histograms or other plots, we need numbers without structure, so ak.flatten() the array.

from hist import Hist

Hist.new.Regular(100, 0, 100, name=" ").Double().fill(
    ak.flatten(events.electron.pt)
).plot();
../_images/623de9de625d71acba06c85cdbfed8c3444ff49ec17eca24c2c3336ac33a483a.png

Each event has a different number of electrons and muons (ak.num() to check).

ak.num(events.electron), ak.num(events.muon)
(<Array [0, 4, 2, 1, 4, 1, 1, 1, ..., 0, 3, 0, 1, 0, 2, 2] type='299973 * int64'>,
 <Array [3, 0, 0, 7, 0, 2, 1, 0, ..., 2, 0, 2, 2, 4, 0, 0] type='299973 * int64'>)

So what happens if we try to compute something with the electrons’ $p_T$ and the muons’ $\eta$?

events.electron.pt * np.sinh(events.muon.eta)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
ValueError                                Traceback (most recent call last)
Cell In[33], line 1
----> 1 events.electron.pt * np.sinh(events.muon.eta)

File ~/micromamba/envs/awkward-docs/lib/python3.11/site-packages/awkward/_operators.py:53, in _binary_method.<locals>.func(self, other)
     51 if _disables_array_ufunc(other):
     52     return NotImplemented
---> 53 return ufunc(self, other)

File ~/micromamba/envs/awkward-docs/lib/python3.11/site-packages/awkward/highlevel.py:1516, in Array.__array_ufunc__(self, ufunc, method, *inputs, **kwargs)
   1514 name = f"{type(ufunc).__module__}.{ufunc.__name__}.{method!s}"
   1515 with ak._errors.OperationErrorContext(name, inputs, kwargs):
-> 1516     return ak._connect.numpy.array_ufunc(ufunc, method, inputs, kwargs)

File ~/micromamba/envs/awkward-docs/lib/python3.11/site-packages/awkward/_connect/numpy.py:466, in array_ufunc(ufunc, method, inputs, kwargs)
    458         raise TypeError(
    459             "no {}.{} overloads for custom types: {}".format(
    460                 type(ufunc).__module__, ufunc.__name__, ", ".join(error_message)
    461             )
    462         )
    464     return None
--> 466 out = ak._broadcasting.broadcast_and_apply(
    467     inputs, action, allow_records=False, function_name=ufunc.__name__
    468 )
    470 if len(out) == 1:
    471     return wrap_layout(out[0], behavior=behavior, attrs=attrs)

File ~/micromamba/envs/awkward-docs/lib/python3.11/site-packages/awkward/_broadcasting.py:968, in broadcast_and_apply(inputs, action, depth_context, lateral_context, allow_records, left_broadcast, right_broadcast, numpy_to_regular, regular_to_jagged, function_name, broadcast_parameters_rule)
    966 backend = backend_of(*inputs, coerce_to_common=False)
    967 isscalar = []
--> 968 out = apply_step(
    969     backend,
    970     broadcast_pack(inputs, isscalar),
    971     action,
    972     0,
    973     depth_context,
    974     lateral_context,
    975     {
    976         "allow_records": allow_records,
    977         "left_broadcast": left_broadcast,
    978         "right_broadcast": right_broadcast,
    979         "numpy_to_regular": numpy_to_regular,
    980         "regular_to_jagged": regular_to_jagged,
    981         "function_name": function_name,
    982         "broadcast_parameters_rule": broadcast_parameters_rule,
    983     },
    984 )
    985 assert isinstance(out, tuple)
    986 return tuple(broadcast_unpack(x, isscalar) for x in out)

File ~/micromamba/envs/awkward-docs/lib/python3.11/site-packages/awkward/_broadcasting.py:946, in apply_step(backend, inputs, action, depth, depth_context, lateral_context, options)
    944     return result
    945 elif result is None:
--> 946     return continuation()
    947 else:
    948     raise AssertionError(result)

File ~/micromamba/envs/awkward-docs/lib/python3.11/site-packages/awkward/_broadcasting.py:915, in apply_step.<locals>.continuation()
    913 # Any non-string list-types?
    914 elif any(x.is_list and not is_string_like(x) for x in contents):
--> 915     return broadcast_any_list()
    917 # Any RecordArrays?
    918 elif any(x.is_record for x in contents):

File ~/micromamba/envs/awkward-docs/lib/python3.11/site-packages/awkward/_broadcasting.py:622, in apply_step.<locals>.broadcast_any_list()
    619         nextinputs.append(x)
    620         nextparameters.append(NO_PARAMETERS)
--> 622 outcontent = apply_step(
    623     backend,
    624     nextinputs,
    625     action,
    626     depth + 1,
    627     copy.copy(depth_context),
    628     lateral_context,
    629     options,
    630 )
    631 assert isinstance(outcontent, tuple)
    632 parameters = parameters_factory(nextparameters, len(outcontent))

File ~/micromamba/envs/awkward-docs/lib/python3.11/site-packages/awkward/_broadcasting.py:946, in apply_step(backend, inputs, action, depth, depth_context, lateral_context, options)
    944     return result
    945 elif result is None:
--> 946     return continuation()
    947 else:
    948     raise AssertionError(result)

File ~/micromamba/envs/awkward-docs/lib/python3.11/site-packages/awkward/_broadcasting.py:915, in apply_step.<locals>.continuation()
    913 # Any non-string list-types?
    914 elif any(x.is_list and not is_string_like(x) for x in contents):
--> 915     return broadcast_any_list()
    917 # Any RecordArrays?
    918 elif any(x.is_record for x in contents):

File ~/micromamba/envs/awkward-docs/lib/python3.11/site-packages/awkward/_broadcasting.py:671, in apply_step.<locals>.broadcast_any_list()
    669 for x, x_is_string in zip(inputs, input_is_string):
    670     if isinstance(x, listtypes) and not x_is_string:
--> 671         next_content = broadcast_to_offsets_avoiding_carry(x, offsets)
    672         nextinputs.append(next_content)
    673         nextparameters.append(x._parameters)

File ~/micromamba/envs/awkward-docs/lib/python3.11/site-packages/awkward/_broadcasting.py:371, in broadcast_to_offsets_avoiding_carry(list_content, offsets)
    369         return list_content.content[:next_length]
    370     else:
--> 371         return list_content._broadcast_tooffsets64(offsets).content
    372 elif isinstance(list_content, ListArray):
    373     # Is this list contiguous?
    374     if index_nplike.array_equal(
    375         list_content.starts.data[1:], list_content.stops.data[:-1]
    376     ):
    377         # Does this list match the offsets?

File ~/micromamba/envs/awkward-docs/lib/python3.11/site-packages/awkward/contents/listoffsetarray.py:411, in ListOffsetArray._broadcast_tooffsets64(self, offsets)
    406     next_content = self._content[this_start:]
    408 if index_nplike.known_data and not index_nplike.array_equal(
    409     this_zero_offsets, offsets.data
    410 ):
--> 411     raise ValueError("cannot broadcast nested list")
    413 return ListOffsetArray(
    414     offsets, next_content[: offsets[-1]], parameters=self._parameters
    415 )

ValueError: cannot broadcast nested list

This error occurred while calling

    numpy.multiply.__call__(
        <Array [[], [21.9, ...], ..., [48.1, 38.7]] type='299973 * var * fl...'>
        <Array [[-0.782, -0.997, -0.326], ..., []] type='299973 * var * flo...'>
    )

This is data structure-aware, array-oriented programming.

Application: Filtering events with an array of booleans.

events.MET.pt, events.MET.pt > 20
(<Array [21.9, 17, 19.1, 30.9, ..., 17.7, 24, 12.9] type='299973 * float32'>,
 <Array [True, False, False, True, ..., False, True, False] type='299973 * bool'>)

len(events), len(events[events.MET.pt > 20])
(299973, 163222)

Application: Filtering particles with an array of lists of booleans.

events.electron.pt, events.electron.pt > 30
(<Array [[], [21.9, ..., 23.8], ..., [48.1, 38.7]] type='299973 * var * float32'>,
 <Array [[], [False, ..., False], ..., [True, True]] type='299973 * var * bool'>)

ak.num(events.electron), ak.num(events.electron[events.electron.pt > 30])
(<Array [0, 4, 2, 1, 4, 1, 1, 1, ..., 0, 3, 0, 1, 0, 2, 2] type='299973 * int64'>,
 <Array [0, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2] type='299973 * int64'>)

Quizlet: Using the reducer ak.any(), how would we select events in which any electron has $p_T > 30$ GeV/c$^2$?

events.electron[events.electron.pt > 30]
[[],
 [{pt: 42.6, eta: -0.98, phi: -1.86, mass: 0.00867, charge: 1, ...}, ...],
 [],
 [],
 [{pt: 30.7, eta: -0.61, phi: 1.01, mass: 0.0117, charge: -1, ...}],
 [],
 [],
 [],
 [{pt: 41, eta: -0.216, phi: 2.79, mass: -0.0128, charge: -1, ...}, {...}],
 [],
 ...,
 [],
 [{pt: 30.2, eta: 1.84, phi: 1.94, mass: -0.00882, charge: 1, ...}],
 [],
 [{pt: 37, eta: -2.35, phi: 0.903, mass: -0.0594, charge: 1, ...}, {...}],
 [],
 [],
 [],
 [],
 [{pt: 48.1, eta: 0.532, phi: -1.61, mass: 0.0127, charge: -1, ...}, ...]]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
type: 299973 * var * Momentum4D[
    pt: float32,
    eta: float32,
    phi: float32,
    mass: float32,
    charge: int32,
    pfRelIso03_all: float32,
    dxy: float32,
    dxyErr: float32,
    dz: float32,
    dzErr: float32
]

Awkward Array has two combinatorial primitives:

ak.cartesian() takes a Cartesian product of lists from $N$ different arrays, producing an array of lists of $N$-tuples.

ak.combinations() takes $N$ samples without replacement of lists from a single array, producing an array of lists of $N$-tuples.

numbers = ak.Array([[1, 2, 3], [], [4]])
letters = ak.Array([["a", "b"], ["c"], ["d", "e"]])

ak.cartesian([numbers, letters])
[[(1, 'a'), (1, 'b'), (2, 'a'), (2, 'b'), (3, 'a'), (3, 'b')],
 [],
 [(4, 'd'), (4, 'e')]]
--------------------------------------------------------------
type: 3 * var * (
    int64,
    string
)

values = ak.Array([[1.1, 2.2, 3.3, 4.4], [], [5.5, 6.6]])

ak.combinations(values, 2)
[[(1.1, 2.2), (1.1, 3.3), (1.1, 4.4), (2.2, ...), (2.2, 4.4), (3.3, 4.4)],
 [],
 [(5.5, 6.6)]]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
type: 3 * var * (
    float64,
    float64
)

Often, it’s useful to separate the separate the left-hand sides and right-hand sides of these pairs with ak.unzip(), so they can be used in mathematical expressions.


electron_muon_pairs = ak.cartesian([events.electron, events.muon])
electron_muon_pairs.type.show()
299973 * var * (
    Momentum4D[
        pt: float32,
        eta: float32,
        phi: float32,
        mass: float32,
        charge: int32,
        pfRelIso03_all: float32,
        dxy: float32,
        dxyErr: float32,
        dz: float32,
        dzErr: float32
    ],
    Momentum4D[
        pt: float32,
        eta: float32,
        phi: float32,
        mass: float32,
        charge: int32,
        pfRelIso03_all: float32,
        pfRelIso04_all: float32,
        dxy: float32,
        dxyErr: float32,
        dz: float32,
        dzErr: float32
    ]
)

electron_in_pair, muon_in_pair = ak.unzip(electron_muon_pairs)
electron_in_pair.type.show()
299973 * var * Momentum4D[
    pt: float32,
    eta: float32,
    phi: float32,
    mass: float32,
    charge: int32,
    pfRelIso03_all: float32,
    dxy: float32,
    dxyErr: float32,
    dz: float32,
    dzErr: float32
]

electron_in_pair.pt, muon_in_pair.pt
(<Array [[], [], [], [10.4, ...], ..., [], [], []] type='299973 * var * float32'>,
 <Array [[], [], [], [54.3, ...], ..., [], [], []] type='299973 * var * float32'>)

ak.num(electron_in_pair), ak.num(muon_in_pair)
(<Array [0, 0, 0, 7, 0, 2, 1, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0] type='299973 * int64'>,
 <Array [0, 0, 0, 7, 0, 2, 1, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0] type='299973 * int64'>)

To use Vector’s deltaR method ($\Delta R = \sqrt{\Delta\phi^2 + \Delta\eta^2}$), we need to have the electrons and muons in separate arrays.

electron_in_pair, muon_in_pair = ak.unzip(ak.cartesian([events.electron, events.muon]))

electron_in_pair.deltaR(muon_in_pair)
[[],
 [],
 [],
 [1.07, 0.405, 1.97, 2.78, 1.01, 0.906, 2.79],
 [],
 [2.55, 0.8],
 [2.63],
 [],
 [],
 [],
 ...,
 [0.44, 3.16, 3.01, 1.05],
 [3.06, 1.52],
 [],
 [],
 [],
 [2.54, 0.912],
 [],
 [],
 []]
----------------------------------------------
type: 299973 * var * float32
first_electron_in_pair, second_electron_in_pair = ak.unzip(ak.combinations(events.electron, 2))

first_electron_in_pair.deltaR(second_electron_in_pair)
[[],
 [2.02, 2.35, 1, 0.347, 1.3, 1.64],
 [2.96],
 [],
 [3.31, 1.23, 2.39, 3.8, 3.19, 2.61],
 [],
 [],
 [],
 [1.18, 2.05, 2.98, 2.26, 2.59, 1.9],
 [],
 ...,
 [2.87],
 [],
 [],
 [2.05, 2.92, 3.02],
 [],
 [],
 [],
 [2.96],
 [2.72]]
-------------------------------------
type: 299973 * var * float32

Quizlet: What’s this?

(first_electron_in_pair + second_electron_in_pair).mass
[[],
 [52.1, 76.8, 22.8, 19.9, 39.1, 64.2],
 [36],
 [],
 [87.3, 18.1, 28.5, 63.9, 56.5, 12.2],
 [],
 [],
 [],
 [19.8, 44.7, 92.2, 16.7, 38.7, 46.9],
 [],
 ...,
 [27.3],
 [],
 [],
 [39.2, 107, 38.4],
 [],
 [],
 [],
 [40.6],
 [91.5]]
--------------------------------------
type: 299973 * var * float32
Hist.new.Reg(120, 0, 120, name="mass (GeV)").Double().fill(
    ak.flatten((first_electron_in_pair + second_electron_in_pair).mass, axis=-1)
).plot();
../_images/0eb0d92031d7b357335a4fa5fdba158241d5f58ea6be267efb24ca1bd9b0c47c.png